Music And Physics Strike A Chord Connections

Music And Physics Strike A Chord Connections

John Rayner, my ANU colleague, wrote an excellent article about the physics and music that seemed to strike a chord with The Conversation’s readership. John’s piece is beautifully set by personal and anecdotal details John’s was subtitle a Love Song but the issues he raises about music and physics date back to ancient Greece and are as old and relevant as the disciplines.

It was a great inspiration for me, a musicologist, to write from the other side, and to meet my scientist colleague in the middle of a conversation about the parallels between the worlds.

Music’s meaning can be both tantalizing and mysterious. Music has the ability to touch us deeply and directly for most people. It is tempting to think of music simply as a language. The idea of music being a type of “language of emotions” is widespread, centuries-old, and has limited experimental support.

The majority of theoretical work on musical semiotics focuses on music as a different flavour of discourse, another language for signs. However, it does have its own unique characteristics.

This is contrary to an old idea: music is a natural law. Music of the spheres was a medieval idea that music is a natural law. The movement of celestial bodies, which we now call astrophysics, was govern by principles of harmony and resonance. There are also common Pythagorean proportions that govern both music and cosmology.

We music academics are nostalgic for the medieval era, when music was one of the core disciplines along with astronomy, geometry, and arithmetic. In that time, logic, grammar, and rhetoric were consider the lesser language-based disciplines, so we hold pride of place.

Lows And Highs Physics

Physics is a part of the language use to describe music and the concepts that we use for understanding it. We may not realize how metaphorical it is to talk about musical pitch in terms of high or low.

Musical pitch is not altitude: Higher pitches are create by higher vibrations than lower pitches. We don’t use the term pitch to describe fast or slow music; we use them as metaphors for something entirely different.

Yet, musical altitude is a concept that makes sense when we consider the energy states of music. As you can see in the below excerpt from Puccini’s opera Tosca (at 2:40), we can notice that a soprano is maintaining a top B flat. This means she must be in a high-energy state which will eventually lead to relaxation.

The pitch seems to be invested with the kinetic energy necessary to produce it. In Tosca’s instance, she encounters the force of gravity in a literal way, but that’s another story.

Singers, brass, and wind players expend energy in order to attain altitude, while guitarists, keyboardists, and string players work no harder to achieve the high notes than those at the lower end.

Human Voice Is So Central To Music

Perhaps because the human voice is so central to music, the idea of fighting musical gravity, as in the Paganini violin concerto and the Jimi Hendrix solo guitar, is omnipresent. As in physics, music is like music: what goes up must also go down.

It doesn’t just fall anywhere. Many musical systems have a point of reference. This is a pitch that acts as an attractor and pulls the music towards it.

In Western music, we call this the, and most people, regardless of their level of formal musical training, can hear and sing the note to which the music is pulling. The idea of gravitational and magnetic attraction to a pitch is arguably the most important. Feature of Western music from 1600 to 1900 and many musics after that.

While this may be a hallmark of Western music, it is also a feature of other cultures’ musics. The idea of a point or attraction can be even stronger in other musics. Such as the one below, which comes from Classical Indian music.

Music Therapy Is A Complex Practice Definition To Define

Music Therapy Is A Complex Practice Definition To Define

Music therapy is a complex practice. The Australian Music Therapy Association (AMTA), however, uses the following definition to define it. Music therapy is a profession and practice based on research that uses music to support people in their efforts to improve their health, function and well-being.

Therapy refers to the intentional use music by a trained professional from university who is register with AMTA.

Music therapists are require to adhere to a code ethics and draw upon a large body of research. They use a variety music-making techniques in therapeutic relationships and can found working in many sectors, including the community, early childhood, disability, and health.

Music therapy is different than music education and entertainment in that it focuses on music functioning and health. Music therapists can work with anyone of any age, ability, culture, or background.

Therapy Histories

Music therapy has use in healing for centuries. However, music therapy was first established in the USA in the 1950s as a profession to aid war veterans with emotional and physical problems. As hospital musicians required training, the demand for university education grew.

The American Association for Music Therapy was found in 1971, and the Australian Association in 1975. It was established by Dr Ruth Bright and Professor Denise Grocke, music therapy pioneers.

Anyone who has ever sung or played a musical instrument knows that music is good for the body, mind, and soul. The benefits are there regardless of whether you’re a professional musician or an amateur.

Music therapists use the music’s benefits to help people of all abilities and ages achieve and maintain good health. They can deliver tailored programs that meet specific needs in hospitals, nursing homes, schools, and other community settings.

Triggers For Oxytocin, Dopamine, And Endorphins

Music therapists use a variety of techniques to help clients. These include singing, writing songs, and structured movement to music activities.

Music’s ability to alter our moods seems to be linked to brain chemicals. Music-making and listening to music can trigger endorphins that provide natural pain relief. Dopamine is responsible for feelings of optimism, power, and buoyancy. This could explain why music-listening can trigger flow or peak experiences.

Group music-making has even greater impact because of the release of oxytocin (a brain tool that builds trust), through shared positive experiences. This is how musical relationships can be encouraged to encourage non-verbal expression and emotion, as well as motivation and confidence.

Neurorehabilitation Using Music Therapy

The brain processes music in many ways. It is connect to memory, emotions, and communication. Brain-scanning technology has shown that music can increase brain activity and create new pathways between the hemispheres.

Therapy is a great option for neurorehabilitation, as the rhythmic organising function of music can use to help rehabilitate speech and movement after a stroke or brain injury.

Music Therapy For Dementia

Music and memory are closely link. This can seen in the emotional flood trigger by listening to significant songs or annoying advertisements that stick in your head.

This feature of music use by music therapists to assist people with memory problems in accessing important information.

Music memory is closely tie to emotions, and both are process deep within the brain. People with dementia often retain song lyrics long after their verbal and other memory abilities have diminished.

Music therapy can often bring out the best in people with dementia. It can also stimulate lucidity and give family members glimpses of the loved one.

Music Festival Organisers Can Stop Big Crowds

Music Festival Organisers Can Stop Big Crowds

One of the most tragic live music incidents in recent times was a fatal crowds surge that occurred during Travis Scott’s Friday night performance. Eight people were kill and many more injure in the crowd crushes that occurr during the Houston show. It was part of the Astroworld Music Festival.

This incident is still under investigation. Criminal investigations are also ongoing. How can such a catastrophe occur in an area where people are suppose be having fun?

Since many years, I have worked in crowd safety. My expertise is in safety enhancements at large events like Schoolies, outdoor music festivals, and sporting tournaments. According to reports, there were many factors that contributed to the environment we refer to as cooperative crowding.

Unsettled Beginning Crowds

Organisers will ensure that people feel comfortable and part of a group at an event they have managed well. Early push-and-shoving reports at Scott’s show is a red flag.

Witnesses also reported that they couldn’t persuade event organizers to act once the disaster started. The music may have been too loud. However, these details will not known until the investigations complete.

According to several outlets including the New York Times, Scott’s show continued for forty minutes after officials from the city reported on the mass causalty event. The show ended just half an hour before planned.

It All Comes Down To Event Crowds Control

To calm a rowdy crowd, event managers often turn up the lights or play slower music. Both lighting conditions and music are important psychosocial considerations.

There are many ways that performers and organizers can settle a crowd, even among high-intensity acts

Rammstein, a German heavy-metal band, can draw large and sometimes hostile crowds. Managers used pyrotechnics and ambient music to control and shift the mood of the crowd during Rammstein’s performance at the 2011 Big Day Out festival.

Knowing your audience and creating the right environment for them is key. The audience and their expectations will determine by the genre. It’s possible that a show will attract high-energy crowds, so it is important to plan ahead. Crowd control should be proactive and not reactive.

The acts on a music festival’s lineup can have an impact on the behavior of the crowd. Festival-goers may persuade by the performers to engage in certain activities or behaviors, thereby avoiding safety restrictions.

Performers can help create a calm environment by their interactions with the audience. They also have the potential to positively influence the crowd.

What Are The Measures In Place?

Despite the media attention surrounding the Astroworld tragedy, it is not common for crowd crushes to be fatal. The most recent fatality in a crowd at a music festival was in Australia during Limp Bizkit’s performance at the Big Day Out 2001 event.

Event managers generally put a lot into making sure that the crowd is well looked after. Crowd care investment can be made through chill-out spaces at venues, which allow for different access levels such as VIP seating or stalls. Because events are highly regulated in Australia as well as internationally, this is possible.

Security guards on the ground are crucial as they ensure that everyone is safe and spread out. It is important to plan the venue in a way that can handle the anticipated number of people.

One example of chaotic crowd crushes in which several systemic problems were present is the 2010 Love Parade in Germany. The event communications system crashed and there was only one exit and entry. This created a chaotic situation that led to 21 deaths from a tunnel-based crush.